What do you mean by transaction?
The main function of an accountant is to record properly the financial transactions of a business concern in the books of accounts and to ascertain its true result at the year end. Thus, transaction is the foundation of accounting – the first and formest element of accounting. In a word, it is the life and blood of accounting. Hence the accountant must have a fair idea about the term “transaction.”
- In ordinary language “transaction” means exchange of something. But in Accounting it is used in a special sense. If the financial position of a business concern changes on the happening of an event which is measurable in terms of money, that event is regarded as a “transaction” in accounting. Or
- A business event which can be measured in terms of money, and which must be recorded in the books of accounts is called a “transaction”.
What is an Event ?
In ordinary language “Event” means anything that happens. Human life is full of events. So many events take place in the family and social life of a person. The events may be classified into two types:
(i) Monetary Events:
- Events which are related with money, i.e. which change the financial position of a person are known as “monetary events”. For example, daily shopping, marriage ceremony, birthday anniversary, marriage anniversary etc.
(ii) Non-Monetary Events:
- Events which are not related with money i.e. which do not change the financial position of a person are known as “non-monetary events”. For example, winning a game, delivering a lecture in a meeting etc.
- In business accounting only those events which change the financial position of the business and which call for accounting are recognized as “Events”. In other words, all monetary events are regarded as “business transactions.”
- Remember, it is not that anything which results in exchange of something will be regarded as transaction. On the other hand, something may be regarded as a transaction even though it involves no exchange.
- R sends a price list to his customer, A. This involves exchange of price list-between R and A, yet it is not regarded as a transaction, because it is not measurable in term of money, and it does not change the financial position of both the persons.
- Again, suppose, goods worth ₹ 1,000 are destroyed by fire. This does not involve any exchange, yet it is regarded as a transaction, because it is measurable in terms of money, and it changes the financial position of the business.
- It must be noted that an event, although measurable in terms of money, may not be regarded as a transaction.
- We receive an order for supply of goods worth ₹1,000. Although it is measurable in terms of money, it is not regarded as a transaction, since it has not changed the financial position. It will, however, be regard as a transaction when the goods are supplied according to the order.
- It appears from the above discussion that the following two conditions must be satisfied in order that an event may be regarded as a transaction in accounting.
(i) The event must be measurable in terms of money.
(ii) The financial position of the business must change on account of that event.
What do you mean by Business transactions?
A business transaction is a financial event which recorded through accounting process in a business organization’s accounting system. All events are not business/accounting transaction, but every business transaction is an event. An event should be a transaction if that event has the following features. There are many features of business transaction which are described below:
Features/Characteristics of Business transactions?
- It is measured in terms of money.
- It changes the financial position of the business.
- It has dual aspects.
- It must be an event visible or invisible
- It should be independent and complete.
- It may be historical or future nature.
- It has documentary evidence.
- It may be cash basis or accrual basis.